LED Lighting Regulations in the European Union: An Overview

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LED Lighting Safety Standards in the EU

Companies importing and manufacturing LED lighting products for the EU market must ensure compliance with various regulations and directives. These, in turn, set requirements concerning electrical safety, energy efficiency, labelling, documentation,  and lab testing.

This guide explains how different directives and regulations are relevant to LED lighting products, including the Low Voltage Directive, Ecodesign Directive, the Energy Labelling Framework Regulation, and the RoHS Directive.


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Ecodesign Directive

The Ecodesign Directive sets ecodesign requirements for different types of electronic products. The Directive also covers energy efficiency requirements for lighting products. While this directive sets general requirements, Commission Regulation (EU) 2019/2020 provides specific requirements for light sources.

CE marking

CE Mark

The directive requires the provision of a CE marking that must be:

  • Have a height of minimum 5 mm
  • be affixed to the product, and when this is not possible, to the packaging and accompanying documents

Documentation requirements

The directive requires importers and manufacturers to provide relevant documents, namely:

The technical documentation should include information such as:

  • Product description and usage
  • Applicable assessment outcomes
  • References to relevant literature
  • Ecological profile
  • Relevant design specification components
  • Applicable standards used
  • Explanations of adopted solutions
  • Information about the product’s environmental design features
  • Results of conformity measures

Specific information that must be included in the technical documentation is specified in the relevant implementing measure, which for lighting products is Regulation (EU) 2019/2020.

Regulation (EU) 2019/2020 laying down ecodesign requirements for light sources

Regulation (EU) 2019/2020 is an implementing measure under the Ecodesign Directive and establishes ecodesign requirements for light sources, including LED and OLED light sources, and separate control gear.

Ecodesign requirements

The regulation’s ecodesign requirements pertain to:

  • Energy efficiency requirements
  • Functional requirements
  • Information requirements

As the three categories above contain multiple requirements, we list below one example requirement from each category. You can find the full list in Annex II of the Regulation.

Category Example of a requirement
Energy efficiency requirements The threshold efficacy of OLED as a light source is 65.0 lm/W.
Functional requirements The stroboscopic effect for LED and OLED main light sources must generally not exceed 0.9 at full load.
Information requirements Light sources must display the following:

  • Value and physical unit of useful luminous flux
  • Correlated colour temperature
  • Beam angle (for directional light sources)

Documentation

Manufacturers must provide relevant documentation, such as those in the table below.

Title Description
Technical documentation Besides the information listed in the Ecodesign Directive, the technical documentation should include information such as:

  • Light product technical parameters
  • Results of the calculations of the ecodesign requirements
  • Results of the calculations of the functional requirements
Instructions For example, instructions on how to remove the light source.

Energy Labelling Framework Regulation

The Energy Labelling Framework Regulation establishes labelling requirements for energy-related products, including LED light products. It also establishes documentation and registration requirements.

Note, however, that specific requirements for light products are provided by the Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2019/2015 .

Energy label

The energy label must contain the following:

  • The supplier’s name, trademark, and contact details
  • The model identifier
  • The energy efficiency class or classes
  • Energy consumption information

Documentation requirements

Suppliers must provide technical documentation containing:

  • Product information sheet
  • The model’s description
  • References to harmonised standards used
  • Precautions for assembly, installation, maintenance, or testing
  • The model’s measured technical parameters
  • Testing conditions, if necessary

Registration requirements

The regulation mandates the registration of covered products in the European Product Registry for Energy Labelling (EPREL) before their placement in the market.

Suppliers must also ensure that they enter the details established in Annex I of the regulation in the EPREL.

Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2019/2015 on Energy labelling for light sources

Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2019/2015 supplements the Energy Labelling Framework Regulation and establishes requirements for the following:

  • Light sources with an integrated control gear
  • Light sources without an integrated control gear
  • Light sources that are contained in another product

Energy efficiency classes

According to Annex II of the regulation, there are 7 energy efficiency classes (A–G), each having their total mains efficacy expressed in luminous flux per power consumption (lm/W). We list them below.

  • A – less than or equal to 210 lm/W
  • B – a value between 185 lm/W (inclusive) and 210 lm/W (exclusive)
  • C – a value between 160 lm/W (inclusive) and 185 lm/W (exclusive)
  • D – a value between 135 lm/W (inclusive) and 160 lm/W (exclusive)
  • E – a value between 110 lm/W (inclusive) and 135 lm/W (exclusive)
  • F – a value between 85 lm/W (inclusive) and 110 lm/W (exclusive)
  • G – maximum of 85 lm/W

Labelling requirements

Light product energy label

Annex III lists labelling requirements for light sources. We briefly explain them below.

Title Description
Size Standard-sized label: 36mm x 72 mm

Small-sized label: 20-36mm x 54mm

Colour Label, including the left/right arrows, can be coloured or monochrome
Supplier’s name or trademark (I) Located under the EU logo and the energy logo
Model identifier (II) Located immediately under the supplier’s name or trademark
Scale of energy efficiency classes from A-G (III) Located between the model identifier and the energy consumption value, colour graded from green to red
Energy consumption value (IV) Located beneath the energy efficiency classes; in units of kWh/1000h
QR code (V) Located in the bottom-right corner of standard-sized labels and the bottom-left corner of small-sized labels
Energy efficiency class (VI) Table 1 in Annex II provides a method to calculate the energy efficiency class for lighting products
Regulation number (VII) “2019/2015”

Located in the bottom right corner of the label.

Documentation requirements

Suppliers must provide technical documentation containing the elements specified in Annex VI. We list those elements below.

Title Description
Product and supplier identification information
  • Supplier’s name and address
  • Identification and signature of the person authorised to bind the supplier
  • Model identifier
Declared technical values for technical parameters You can find the complete list of declared values in point 1(e) of Annex VI
Calculations performed using those parameters This should also include how you determined the energy efficiency class
References to harmonised standards used If you did not apply any harmonised standards, provide a reference to any other standards used
Testing conditions (if necessary) Provide this if you did not sufficiently describe them using the standards
Reference control settings Also provide implementation instructions, if applicable
Instructions This should cover:

a. Removal of lighting control parts or non-lighting parts; or

b. How to switch those parts off

c. How to minimise the power consumption during testing

Precautions Should be specific, and cover:

  • Assembly
  • Installation
  • Maintenance, or testing

Suppliers must also provide a product information sheet containing the information listed in Annex V, such as supplier information and product parameters.

RoHS Directive

The RoHS Directive establishes restrictions regarding hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment (EEE), such as lighting equipment.

The directive generally requires importers and manufacturers to:

  • Ensure the EEE, and parts thereof, do not contain substances listed in Annex II
  • Provide relevant documentation
  • Provide adequate labelling

Substance restrictions

Annex II of the RoHS directive lists substances and their restrictions:

  • Lead – 0.1%
  • Mercury – 0.1%
  • Cadmium – 0.01%
  • Chromium VI – 0.1%
  • PBB – 0.1%
  • PBDE – 0.1%
  • DEHP – 0.1%
  • BBP – 0.1%
  • DBP – 0.1%
  • DIBP – 0.1%

Documentation

Manufacturers and importers must provide the following documentation:

  • Declaration of Conformity (DoC)
  • Technical documentation
  • Test report

Labelling

Importers and manufacturers must also ensure that their products include labelling elements such as:

  • CE marking
  • Product traceability label

The product traceability label should contain:

  • The product’s batch, serial number, or type
  • Their name, registered name or trademark
  • Their physical address
  • Their contact information

Low Voltage Directive

The Low Voltage Directive covers the safety of electrical equipment that is designed to be used with a voltage rating of between:

  • 50 – 1000 V for alternating current
  • 75 – 1500 V for direct current

Such equipment generally do not include battery-operated LED lights, as usually in this case the product voltage is lower than 50 volts.

Harmonised standards

Here are several examples of harmonised standards relevant to LED light products:

Standard number Title of standard
EN 60838-2-2 Miscellaneous lampholders — Part 2-2: Particular requirements – Connectors for LED-modules
EN 61347-2-13 Lamp controlgear — Part 2-13: Particular requirements for d.c. or a.c. supplied electronic controlgear for LED modules
EN IEC 62031 LED modules for general lighting — Safety specifications
EN 62560 Self-ballasted LED-lamps for general lighting services by voltage > 50 V — Safety specifications
EN 62776 Double-capped LED lamps designed to retrofit linear fluorescent lamps — Safety specifications

Documentation

Importers and manufacturers must ensure the provision of the following documentation:

  • Declaration of Conformity (DoC)
  • Technical documentation
  • User instructions and safety information
  • Test reports

Labelling

Importers and manufacturers must also make sure they label each of their compliant electrical equipment with:

  • CE marking
  • Product traceability information (e.g., name and address)

EMC Directive

The Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Directive regulates the electromagnetic compatibility of apparatus and fixed installations. This also includes LED light products.

The directive generally requires that the equipment’s design ensures that:

a. The equipment does not generate disturbance above a certain limit

b. The equipment performance does not unacceptably degrade when in the presence of disturbance under a certain limit

Harmonised standards

We could not find harmonised standards specifically for “LED light products”. However, a few harmonised standards relevant to lighting products exist. We list them below.

Standard number Title
EN IEC 55015 Limits and methods of measurement of radio disturbance characteristics of electrical lighting and similar equipment
EN 55103-1 Electromagnetic compatibility — Product family standard for audio, video, audio-visual and entertainment lighting control apparatus for professional use – Part 1: Emissions
EN 55103-2 Electromagnetic compatibility — Product family standard for audio, video, audio-visual and entertainment lighting control apparatus for professional use – Part 2: Immunity

Documentation

The directive mandates manufacturers to provide the following documentation:

  • Declaration of Conformity (DoC)
  • User instructions and information
  • Technical documentation
  • Test reports

Labelling

The directive requires importers and manufacturers to provide labels on their lighting products, such as:

  • CE marking
  • Product traceability information

WEEE Directive

WEEE Mark

The Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) Directive establishes labelling and registration requirements for electrical and electronic equipment, including the following categories:

  • Lamps (e.g., LED lamps)
  • Large equipment (e.g., luminaries)

Importers and manufacturers of EEE must register in the EU member state they place their product in. They must provide the information set out in Annex X.

Producers must also provide a separate collection symbol, shown in Annex IX, with their products.

Lab Testing

Importers and manufacturers often need to ensure their products undergo testing to prove compliance with requirements such as electrical safety and energy efficiency requirements.

Some of the regulations listed below require testing, while for others it is a practical necessity.

Regulation Lab testing
Regulation (EU) 2019/2020 Testing is generally required to comply with ecodesign requirements. For example:

a. Annex V outlines an endurance tests for LED and OLED light sources

b. Annex IV claims that light sources (e.g., LED strips) should undergo verification testing

RoHS Directive Product testing is necessary to prove compliance with substance restrictions.
Low Voltage Directive Importers and manufacturers must carry out testing on electrical equipment to ensure the electrical safety of the product
EMC Directive Products must undergo testing to ensure that the product:

  • Do not cause electromagnetic disturbances to other nearby equipment
  • Can operate without unacceptably degrading due to electromagnetic disturbances

LED light products testing companies

We list below a few companies that provide testing for lighting products in the EU:

  • TÜV Rheinland
  • UL
  • Intertek
  • Eurofins

Additional Requirements

Below we list additional EU regulations because their requirements also apply to lighting products regarding areas such as usage of plastic components, mechanical safety, and wifi or Bluetooth capabilities.

Regulation Description
REACH The REACH regulation sets substance restrictions for consumer products, including lighting products and their components. For example, plastic components could contain phthalates, which are restricted by REACH.
General Product Safety Regulation The General Product Safety Regulation covers safety aspects not covered by other regulations. For example, electrical safety testing is generally required for products that do not fall under the scope of the Low Voltage Directive, or mechanical safety may be required.
Radio Equipment Directive The Radio Equipment Directive requirements are relevant if your lighting product has Bluetooth or Wifi capabilities.

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    Sources: Our articles are written in part based on publicly available information, and our own practical experience relating to product compliance. These are some of the primary sources we use:

    • ec.europa.eu
    • echa.europa.eu
    • ecfr.gov
    • cpsc.gov
    • ftc.gov
    • fcc.gov
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